Flags and Colours Part 2: Evidence
Updated: Seven more cornets located!
Part two of the KeepYourPowderDry guide to Civil War flags and colours looks at evidence - surviving flags, and contemporary records.
Picture courtesy of the National Army Museum
Of course, the ensign belonging to Sir John Gell's Regiment of Foot takes pride of place in the refurbished NAM.
I have read that when the museum was conserving Gell's flag, and the museum was undergoing major refurbishment, that it was planned to alternate display of the two flags in the NAM collection.
Antony House in Plymouth, have a yellow ensign on display with black lion devices (possibly belonging to Alexander Carew's Cornish parliamentarian regiment of foot).
The Royal United Services Institute have a burgundy coloured flag possibly dating to the period, bearing lamb of St Wilfred devices. The devices are the correct way up when the flag is displayed horizontally, which would strongly suggest they are later additions. An image of this flag appears in the Airfix magazine guide to ECW Wargaming; Peachey and Prince also make reference to it in Volume 1 of ECW flags series. The flag was exhibited in the RUSI museum which used to be housed in the Banqueting House in London, where King Charles had an appointment with a man with a big axe.
There are two cavalry cornets, known as the Yate cornets (although there is some debate if they are contemporaneous replicas) at Bromesberrow Church. Update: just visited it - pictures here.
My first impression was how small they were. The Commandery had a project to reproduce these two cornets which were displayed alongside the originals briefly, the replica cornets are now on permanent display in Worcester.
The Museum of London have six cavalry cornets dating most probably from the Second Civil War which have been made into four screen panels. The cornets were double-thickness and have been taken apart to form the 12 panels of the screens, fringing and pole sleeves have been removed (although some remnants remain). Five of the pairs match (both sides being painted the same) while the last two do not but are believed to come from the same cornet (different design on each side). These are believed to be the cornets of different troops from one Royalist regiment which fought in the Kentish Rebellion. Blount describes one cornet which is suspiciously like one of those that makes up the screens - so we might infer that they are from Colonel Robert Hatton’s Regiment of Horse. Whilst not on display an image of two of the panels is available here. I have learnt today that it is hoped the cornets will be displayed when the museum moves to a new site (currently scheduled for 2024).
In April 2005 Bonham's Auctioneers put a cavalry cornet under the hammer: the cornet was alleged to have been captured by Bernard Brocas at the First Battle of Newbury (a Telegraph article about the sale states it was Second Newbury). The cornet is light green silk damask, woven with a foliage design and bearing the motto Constanter et Fideliter; the cornet, according to the story, was taken from a member of the Hesilrigge family. However, only Sir Arthur is believed to have fought in the wars, and he was not present at First Newbury, or even slain at the Second. Sadly the cornet was sold to a private collection.
The cornet captured by Bernard Brocas, picture from the Daily Telegraph/Bonhams
There are a number of Scots Covenanter flags in existence, some on display at the National Museum of Scotland and Greyfriar's Kirk (both in Edinburgh); others are listed at Scottish Covenanter Memorials Association.
Eye witness evidence
We know a great deal about the flags of the London trained bands and auxiliaries thanks to Royalist spy William Levett. He observed a muster of the regiments on the 26th September 1643 and documented his observations in a report with coloured pictures. A number of regiments did not muster on that day but it appears Levett was aware of their flag designs. NAM has a surviving copy of Levett's report in their library (illustrations are not coloured, but annotated instead), this copy has additional information concerning officer's names. This copy was said to be by Richard Symonds, another Royalist spy.
Another source documenting the London regiments was created by John Lucas in 1647, who had an interest in heraldry. He documented the ensigns of the trained bands and the London horse cornets (as well as documenting officers' names).
Parliament also had its spies documenting the regiments marching in and out of Oxford. Sadly they weren't quite as diligent as either Levett or Symonds merely describing the number of white regiments, blew regiments and so forth.
We know what quite a few cavalry cornets, from the early years of the wars, look like due to a document with the title Sketches of regimental banners from the English Civil Wars (Add MS 5247). Whilst many British Library documents have been digitised, this one hasn't - a small number of pictures from the document are available online. This was effectively a pattern book of cornets from a cornet manufacturer.
We have a good knowledge of Scot's flags from the Third Civil War due to the fact that they were so roundly defeated at Preston (1648) and Dunbar (1650) - the (many) captured flags were documented in a book by Fitzpayne Fisher who faithfully painted them.
The Frenchman, Henry Estienne Lord of Fossez, wrote the somewhat pithily titled "The art of making devises : treating of hieroglyphicks, symboles, emblemes, aenigma's, sentences, parables, reverses of medalls, armes, blazons, cimiers, cyphres and rebus". It contains many images and descriptions of Civil War heraldry and flags. The book was translated by Thomas Blount , and his English translation was published in the 1646. You will usually see it referred to as Blount's "The Art of making Devises" in flag reference books (the laying out of print in modern times is clearly much more expensive per word than it was in the seventeenth century). The book is available as a facsimile copy from time to time, just ensure that the copy has the plates included. It is also available online.
Finally, the correspondence of officers and gentry provide us with many clues. We have some descriptions of captured flags in letters from officers: again, they weren't as diligent as Levitt, Symonds or Fisher; we often know the design of the flag, but not to whom they belong. Some we can deduce - fourteen flags belonging to one regiment at Marston Moor almost certainly belonged to Newcastle's lambs, as they were the only Royalist regiment fielding that many companies. We can also glean some clues to colours of flags from receipt books, for example Earl Henry Clifford of Skipton Castle purchased "ensigns' staffs and crimson and cerise silk for his emblems on their standards". Lots of details from contemporaneous letters can be found on the rather fabulous BCW Regimental Wiki.
Sealed Knot/ English Civil War Society
Okay not strictly historical evidence, but useful nonetheless from a wargaming stand point. Re-enactors also have a part to play. The regiments they re-enact field flags and colours, some of which are conjectural. These people are passionate about what they do and spend many hours researching their regiment - I have used some dragoon guidons from Sealed Knot regiments for my own regiments.